Optimizing Test Design Using Tools

Pairwise, Orthogonal Arrays and Classification Trees

1-2 days Manager, QA, Engineer
Next Course Dates:


Many test engineers learn and get certified, but rarely use the test design techniques that they have been taught. I found it strange, but then realized that testers like to use tools, and if techniques were implemented via tools, they would have used them more.

Pairwise and Classification Trees are very good and efficient techniques for test design, prioritization of tests, and for saving time and money on performing the right tests first.

In this workshop, I shall present the techniques, and the tools (mostly freeware) to exercise them in your projects right after the training.

Hands-on exercises will be performed throughout the workshop to exercise participants in using the techniques via the tools.


Testers, testing team leaders and test managers, that would like to know these very efficient techniques for optimizing test design and their practical implementation, using proven tools (open source, free, commericial).

Learning Objectives

The objectives of this workshop is to give the participants a practical overview of

  • What is Pairwise and Orthogonal Arrays?
  • How to use the freeware ‘allpairs’ tool by James Bach, in your projects
  • How to use the freeware ‘PICT’ tool by Microsoft (for pairwise), in your projects
  • What is Classification Trees?
  • How to use the classification Trees/Testona Editor tool in your projects?

These questions and more are a part of the challenges we face in implementing ET today, whether it is in incremental models or more recently in iterative models (i.e. Agile).

The workshop emphasizes the implementation of the techniques using the freeware tools that will be provided. Through presentation, discussion, debate, brainstorming, questioning, and hands-on exercises - we shall learn how to implement those techniques in our projects.


Participants should have basic testing knowledge about testing life cycle, testing techniques and methods, test measurements.

Note: Class participants should have laptops/PC, with Windows 7/8/10, internet and email access and Office 2010 and up. Tools shall be provided and installed during the workshop as an install exercise at the beginning of the day.

Related Courses


Mr. Alon Linetzki - is an expert test engineer, testing coach and a testing consultant with over 20 years in testing, and over 30 years in IT. During his career, Mr. Linetzki have participated and managed various types of development projects and testing projects with a large range of technologies, size and sector domain orientation from telecommunication and finance, to banking and embedded systems.

He is the author of multiple testing classes, including: Testing in an Agile Environment, Agile Testing, Exploratory Testing, Test Process Improvement Using TPI®, Risk Based Testing, Writing Good Test Requirements, and Test Automation for Decision Makers, Introduction to Test Automation, Personal Communication and presentation Skills, Root Cause analysis in Testing and more.

Mr. Linetzki is a popular speaker in international testing conferences since 1995. He is the co-founder of the Israeli Testing Certification Board (www.itcb.org.il), and the founder and chair of SIGiST Israel (www.sigist.org.il). He is leading the ISTQB® Partner Program worldwide as part of the marketing working group. He is also one of the authors of the new ISTQB® Foundation Level Agile Tester Extension Certification, and leading the Business Outcomes and Marketing efforts of the certification.


  1. Introduction
    • Presenting participants and trainer
    • Challenges we are facing in testing today
    • Challenges we face in test design
  2. Classification Trees
    • The CT basics
      • The Classification trees Method
      • Basics of CT
      • An Example
        • Business, Functional and Component tests
      • Exercise  (hands on - basics CT)
    • Classification Trees Editor Tool
      • Introduction and demo
    • Advanced aspects in CT
      • Coverage using CT
        • Minimum & Maximum
      • Exercise (hands on statistics, coverage, min/max)
      • How to reduce test cases?
      • Dependencies & Limitations
      • Exercise (hands on - dependencies)
    • Benefits of Classification Trees
  3. Pairwise, Orthogonal Arrays & All-pairs
    • The problem
    • What is pairwise testing?
      • Calculating the pair combinations
      • Pairwise in the research
      • Why does pairwise testing works?
    • Pairwise & orthogonal arrays algorithms
      • Potential test case explosion
      • Pairwise theory
      • Orthogonal arrays theory and algorithm (using an example)
      • Exercise (orthogonal arrays)
      • All-pairs algorithm
      • Using all-pairs (tool demo)
      • Exercise (hands-on all-pairs, JB)
      • PICT tool demo
      • Exercise (hands-on PICT, MS)
    • Implementation Risks…
  4. Retrospective
    • Your "take-away" from this course
    • Summary discussion


Note: the syllabus outline may vary, and additions or subtractions of topics and subtopics may occur – all in favor of delivering a better course content, that is relevant, up-to-date, and adding value.